Canberra's spring 2019 summary
Daytime temperatures were markedly above average over spring in the nation's capital, whilst rainfall was below average.
In terms of maximum temperatures, this spring will be the second hottest in at least 80 years — after spring 2006. This calculation accounts for today's forecast.
Minimum temperatures from September through to November were slightly below the long term average, held back by cooler nights during September.
The main driver for this spring's temperatures was a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). A positive IOD means less moisture and cloud cover over the southeast of Australia, which in turn allows more efficient daytime heating and nighttime cooling.
Rainfall was also strongly influenced by the IOD, with just 45% (80.2mm) of rain collected. This puts spring 2019 in the top 10 driest springs when surveying Canberra's observational records back to 1939.