Melbourne's driest spring in over a decade
Victoria's capital city just registered its driest spring since 2008.
During the months of September, October and November, the city only collected 65% of its average spring rainfall — receiving 119.4mm compared to the average of 185.2mm.
The main reason for this rainfall deficit was the positive phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which is known to result in less moisture over the southeast of Australia during the spring season.
The average minimum temperature through spring 2019 was the lowest since 2003, whilst the average maximum temperature was the highest in just two years.
Cooler minima and warmer maxima are also much more likely during spring with a positive IOD.